Preprint / Version 1

Organization Performance Improvement based on Baldrige Indicators with Delphi Method Approaching


  • Sugiri Widjajanto Universitas Mercu Buana Jakarta


Baldrige Criteria, MBNQA, MBCfPE, Delphi, Performance excellence


Although more attention is paid to improvement in industry and business, little effort is made to develop the organization’s overall performance, which actually underpins organizational quality improvement. This study is conducted to see the performance of an organization that is an electromedical equipment assembly company in Indonesia that in 2020 experienced a surge in jobs and experienced barriers in social activities due to the pandemic. The performance analysis was carried out using seven variables from the Malcolm Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence (MBCfPE) which were elaborated into 43 indicators of organizational performance. Weaknesses and strengths of organizational performance were sharpened through focus group discussions (FGD). Five experts used the Delphi approach and ended with a performance improvement solution with a priority rank, whereas the Operational variable has the highest 91% Delphi consensus result. This study contributes to performance measurement research that combines the use of US Baldrige variables, brainstorming discussion and the Delphi method.


Abbas, S. K., Hassan, H. A., Hashmi, Z. M., Junaid, H. M., Majid, S., & Ijaz, T. (2018). Intellectual Capital Impact on Organisations’ Performance. International Journal of Advanced Engineering, Management and Science (IJAEMS), 4(7), 519–524.

Abdul Rauf, K.?;, Shafiq, D. M., Tahir, A. H., Wahid, S., & Ahmed, S. (2020). Impact of On Job Training, Training Design and Training Delivery Style on Organizations Performance. FUJBE, 5(2 (August)), 31–41.

Abidi, M. (2020). Redevelopment of the Matching Model: Decortications and Application on the Tunisian Labor Market. Journal of Economic Cooperation and Development, 41(2), 17–46.

Abualoush, S., Masa’deh, R., Bataineh, K., & Alrowwad, A. (2018). The role of knowledge management process and intellectual capital as intermediary variables between knowledge management infrastructure and organization performance. Interdisciplinary Journal of Information, Knowledge and Management, 13, 279–309.

Ahlstrom, D., Arregle, J., Hitt, M. A., Qian, G., Ma, X., & Faems, D. (2020). Managing Technological, Sociopolitical, and Institutional Change in the New Normal. Journal of Management Studies, 57(3), 411–437.

Ahmed, T., Khan, M. S., Thitivesa, D., Siraphatthada, Y., & Phumdara, T. (2020). Impact of employees engagement and knowledge sharing on organizational performance: Study of HR challenges in COVID-19 pandemic. Human Systems Management, 39(4), 589–601.

Ahuja, J., Panda, T. K., Luthra, S., Kumar, A., Choudhary, S., & Garza-Reyes, J. A. (2019). Do human critical success factors matter in adoption of sustainable manufacturing practices? An influential mapping analysis of multi-company perspective. Journal of Cleaner Production, 239, 117981.

Alanazi, M. H. (2020). The mediating role of primary TQM factors and strategy in the relationship between supportive TQM factors and organizational results: An empirical assessment using the MBNQA model. Cogent Business and Management, 7(1), 1–26.

Alhaqbani, A. M. (2017). Continuous improvement: Critical success factors in the Saudi public service sector. In University of Portsmouth (Issue January).

Ali, N. A., Mahat, F., & Mukhtar, R. (2017). Quality governance and performance evaluation in Malaysian public sector. International Journal of Economics and Management, 11(3 Special Issue), 831–845.

Amarkhil, Q. (2019). a Framework To Assess Post-Conflict Environment Impact on Construction Organization Performance (Issue May). /articles/thesis/A_FRAMEWORK_TO_ASSESS_POST-CONFLICT_ENVIRONMENT_IMPACT_ON_CONSTRUCTION_ORGANIZATION_PERFORMANCE/8018789/1

Anastasiadou, S., & Taraza, E. (2019). the Structure and Paths of Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) Dimensions Applied in Greek Tertiary Education System. EDULEARN19 Proceedings, 1(July), 455–463.

Anggara, H., & Hasibuan, S. (2020). Rancangan strategi peningkatan kinerja Lembaga Pelayanan Perizinan Daerah dengan metode MBNQA-SWOT. Operations Excellence: Journal of Applied Industrial Engineering, 12(1), 28–39.

Anggara, S. A., Pryantara, E., Samsuar, A., & ... (2019). Antecedents of Organizational Commitment and Motivation: Consequences of Government Internal Auditor Performance (Case Study... International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 4(2), 237–248.

Asif, M. (2020). Are QM models aligned with Industry 4.0? A perspective on current practices. Journal of Cleaner Production, 258, 120820.

Asif, M., Jameel, A., Sahito, N., Hwang, J., Hussain, A., & Manzoor, F. (2019). Can leadership enhance patient satisfaction? Assessing the role of administrative and medical quality. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 16(17).

Balabonien?, I., & Ve?erskien?, G. (2015). The aspect of performance measurement in public sector organization. Procedia Social and Behavioral Science, 213, 314–320.

Chaudhry, N. I., Jareko, M. A., Mushtaque, T., Mahesar, H. A., & Ghani Zakia. (2017). Impact of Working Environment and Training & Development on Organization Performance through mediating role of employee engagement and job satisfaction. European Journal of Training and Development Studies, 4(2), 33–48.

Chioke, S. C., & Mbamalu, K. U. (2020). Human resource planning and organization performance: A Philosophical Approach. International Journal of Management, Social Sciences, Peace and Conflict Studies, 3(3), 387–398.

Darmasaputra Leksono, F., Siagian, H., & Josowanto Oei, S. (2020). The Effects of Top Management Commitment on Operational Performance Through the Use of Information Technology and Supply Chain Management Practices. SHS Web of Conferences, 76, 01009.

Eriksson, H., Gremyr, I., Bergquist, B., Garvare, R., Fundin, A., Wiklund, H., Wester, M., & Sörqvist, L. (2016). Exploring quality challenges and the validity of excellence models. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 36(10), 1201–1221.

Fatima, S., & Mahaboob, S. A. (2018). Total Quality Management Practices and Organizational Performance-An MBNQA Model Based Study of Two Hospitals. Sumedha Journal of Management, 7(4), 27.

Furst Bowe, J. (2019). Government excellence. International Journal of Excellence in Government, 1(1), 18–20.

Grime, M. M., & Wright, G. (2016). Delphi Method. In Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online (Issue August, pp. 1–6).

Iravani, S. (2020). Operations Engineering and Management: Concepts, Analytics and Principles for Improvement. McGraw-Hill Education.

Jong, C. Y., Sim, A. K. S., & Lew, T. Y. (2019). The relationship between TQM and project performance: Empirical evidence from Malaysian construction industry. Cogent Business and Management, 6(1), 1–31.

Kaliannan, M., Puteh, F., & Dorasamy, M. (2014). Measuring Service Quality in Malaysian Local Government?: The SERVQUAL Approach. Knowledge Management International Conference (KMICe), August, 30–34.

Kanapathipillai, K., & Azam, S. M. F. (2020). The Impact of Employee Training Programs on Job Performance and Job Satisfaction in the Telecommunication Companies in Malaysia. European Journal of Human Resource Management Studies, 4(3), 1–17.

Kasushik, M., & Guleria, N. (2020). The Impact of Pandemic COVID -19 in Workplace. European Journal of Business and Management, 12(15), 1–18.

Mahmud, M. S., Majid, M. B., Yusof, Y., Foziah, N. H. M., Sabir, I., Asad-ur-Rehman, & Sarwar, M. A. (2020). Knowledge Management as a Strategic tool in Organization Performance?: A Review of Literature Knowledge Management as a Strategic tool in Organization Performance?: A Review of Literature . Asad-ur-Rehman. International Journal of Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity, 11(3), 283–290.

Mellat-Parast, M. (2015). A longitudinal assessment of the linkages among the Baldrige criteria using independent reviewers’ scores. International Journal of Production Economics, 164, 24–34.

Muwardi, D., Saide, Indrajit, R. E., Iqbal, M., Astuti, E. S., & Herzavina. (2020). Intangible resources and institution performance: The concern of intellectual capital, employee performance, job satisfaction and its impact on organization performance. International Journal of Innovation Management, 24(5).

Najib, H., Pel, S., Kurnia, C., & Rimawan, E. (2019). Analysis of Operational Management of Forwarder Service Companies PT . Jaya Lautal Global. International Journal of Innovative Science and Research Technology, 4(1), 212–218.

Nandasinghe, G. (2020). Leadership and Organisation Performance: A Review on Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. Global Journal of Management and Business Research, July, 25–30.

NIST. (2020). Baldrige Excellence Builder - Key questions for improving your organization’s performance.

Owais, L., & Kiss, J. T. (2020). The Effects of using Performance Measurement Systems (PMSS) on Organization’ Performance. Cross-Curtural Management Journal, XXII(2), 111–121.

Parast, M. M., & Golmohammadi, D. (2019). Quality management in healthcare organizations: Empirical evidence from the baldrige data. International Journal of Production Economics, 216(April), 133–144.

Pengsuwan, P., & Choonhaklai, S. (2019). Paradigms of public administration and development of Thai modern bureaucracy over five decades. Kasetsart Journal of Social Sciences, 40(1), 105–112.

Raharjo, H., & Eriksson, H. (2017). Exploring differences between private and public organizations in business excellence models. International Journal of Operations and Production Management, 37(12), 1795–1816.

Savov, R., Cheben, J., Lancaric, D., & Serencéš, R. (2017). MBNQA approach in quality management supporting sustainable business performance in agribusiness. Amfiteatru Economic, 19(44), 10–27.

Sintari, M. N. (2020). Hospital’s Performance with Malcolm Baldrige Method. Journal of Public Health Research and Community Health Development, 3(2), 108.

Skinner, R., Nelson, R. R., Chin, W. W., & Land, L. (2015). The Delphi method research strategy in studies of information systems. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 37, 31–63.

Tasiou, E. P. F. V. N. B. M. (2017). Effect of Total Quality Management in Local Authorities. International Journal of Quality and Service Sciences, 9, 1–29.

Thompson, K. R., & Blazey, M. L. (2017). What we can learn from the Baldrige Criteria: An integrated management model to guide organizations. Organizational Dynamics, 46(1), 21–29.

United Nations Development Programme. (2020). Youth Co:Lab survey reveals how COVID-19 is affecting youth-led businesses in Asia-Pacific. In UNDP Asia Pacific.

Vinyard, J. (2015). Organization Diagnosis, Design, and Transformation - Baldrige User’s Guide. In P. D. O’Mara (Ed.), American Society for Quality, Quality Press (7th ed.). Quality Press.

Widjajanto, S., Purmala, Y. A., & Rosdiana, D. (2020). Rancangan pengukuran kinerja layanan publik: Studi kasus pelayanan pengujian alat ventilator BPFK Kemenkes RI. Operations Excellence: Journal of Applied Industrial Engineering, 12(2), 145.

Yano Research Institute Ltd. (2020). Flash Report on Research for Post-COVID-19 Business Environment and Corporate Management.

Yap, O. F. (2020). A New Normal or Business-as-Usual? Lessons for COVID-19 from Financial Crises in East and Southeast Asia. European Journal of Development Research, 32(5), 1504–1534.

Zurich, J. M., Woetzel, J., Smit, S., Manyika, J., Ramaswamy, S., Birshan, M., Windhagen, E., Schubert, J., Hieronimus, S., Dagorret, G., & Noguer, M. C. (2021). Will productivity and growth return after the COVID ? 19 crisis?? In Mckinsey Global Institute - Executive Summary (Issue March).